Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the world at a pace unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years, which has negatively impacted natural ecosystems and human societies in many different ways. Although the consequences of climate change have been documented in nearly all organism groups and across virtually every ecosystem on Earth, alpine environments are expected to be particularly vulnerable to its negative impacts. Mediterranean sky island archipelagos (MSIA) represent the warm distributional margin for many cold-adapted species more widely distributed at higher latitudes and harbor extraordinarily high levels of local microendemism. However, despite the high vulnerability to climate warming and great conservation value of MSIA, the geological, evolutionary, and ecological processes that have shaped their rich biodiversity remain poorly-known, the taxonomic status of their putatively endemic species is often controversial, and the fate of their populations under future climate change scenarios has never been forecasted using mechanistic models (i.e., process-based) incorporating species-specific demographic parameters. Documenting, anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change in alpine biotas ideally requires (i) detailed taxonomic and evolutionary assessments, (ii) evaluating the genetic diversity status of contemporary populations, (iii) inferring the processes that have shaped their past demographic dynamics, (iv) monitoring recent distributional shifts and, ultimately, (v) integrating this information to forecast the fate of species and populations across the landscape.